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  • ELA Module - Grade 1: Frog and Toad Together

ELA Module - Grade 1: Frog and Toad Together | Rating (star)(star)(star)(star)

Arnold Lobel
New York: HarperCollins, 1971

This assessment module is a performance activity to assess how well students can examine complex text and then demonstrate their understanding through writing.

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CORE Assessment Module

Module Overview

 

Purpose and Usage:

This assessment module is a performance activity to assess how well students can examine complex text and then demonstrate their understanding through writing. All modules were developed by practitioners for practitioners. Since the reading expectations are rigorous, some might find the text selections challenging. Please note, however, that the text exemplars that are used as the basis for each module are taken directly from Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards for targeted grades.

The expectations of the CCSS call on teachers to instruct around complex text so students read closely to accomplish essential skills, such as make inferences, determine themes, and analyze development of ideas. They do so using textual evidence from a targeted complex text. Much like teachers engage students in the writing process to create optimal written products, teachers would likewise plan and conduct a series of comprehensive lessons to help students meet these rigorous reading standards.  These lessons would align to specific reading standards, include a myriad of instructional strategies and formative assessments (e.g., read silently, discuss, listen to, take notes, engage in discussion with peers, write informally and formally, etc.), and center on text-dependent activities and tasks to illicit deep understanding of targeted texts. This assessment module does not replace a formalized series of lessons around complex text as just described, but rather provides a “dipstick” to get a sense of how well students read complex text independently and proficiently. The results are meant to inform teachers about future instruction.

Teachers should use their professional judgment and their district’s recommended guidelines to administer this module as a pre-assessment or formative assessment in order to gather information about a student’s ability to read complex text carefully and construct an organized writing piece that is grounded in evidence from the text. Some teachers might decide to use two modules – one as a preassessment and another as a formative assessment to check for understanding during the formalized instructional process around complex text.

We encourage teachers to administer this assessment with colleagues and discuss results together to ascertain next steps in an instructional plan. Teachers can employ additional instructional strategies beyond what is included in this module when administering the assessment. However, discuss with colleagues which ones you choose to use so you are conducting this assessment under similar conditions.

 

Scoring:

At this time, use the Smarter Balance rubrics available at this link: http://www.smarterbalanced.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2012/05/TaskItemSpecifications/EnglishLanguageArtsLiteracy/ELARubrics.pdf . Smarter Balanced does not have a rubric for each grade for all three writing types; however, later, a more detailed rubric for all grades and types will be considered.

Content Area

English Language Arts

Text

Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel

Grade Level

Grade 1

Target Area

Text-Dependent Questions, Performance Writing Task ( Opinion Piece)

ELA Common Core State Standards

RL 1.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

RL 1.2 Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.

W 1.1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

*SL 1.1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

SBAC Assessment Claims

Claim 1 : Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts.

Claim 2 : Students can produce effective and well-grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences.

Task Overview

This assessment task will be completed in three parts. The prewriting/planning in parts one and two involves reading, drawing visual images, and literature discussion. Additionally, students will complete a graphic organizer, which includes discussion with peers in order to write individual responses to text-dependent questions. In part three, students will be asked to write an opinion piece based on a character in the story.

Module Components

1)      Directions to Teacher

2)      “The Garden” from Frog and Toad Together Text Passage

3)      Sketch Sheet

4)      Text-Dependent Questions and Peer Discussion

5)      Independent Writing Task


*Standard addressed but not explicitly assessed.

 



Frog and Toad Together

Directions to Teacher

 

This Common Core-aligned ELA Performance Task can be given over two to three days depending on class schedules. The directions below outline the steps to follow for a three-day administration. 

 

Text: Lobel, Arnold. Frog and Toad Together. New York: HarperCollins, 1971. (1971) From the Chapter “The Garden.”

 

Materials

  • “The Garden” from Frog and Toad Together Text Passage
  • Frog and Toad Together Sketch Sheet
  • Visual Prompts for Literature Discussion
  • Text-Dependent Questions Graphic Organizer
  • Frog and Toad Together Question List
  • Writing Prompt Organizer (Scaffolded Support)
  • Writing Prompt Frame (Scaffolded Support)

 

DAY 1

1.    Reading  

(Approximately 15 minutes)

Read “The Garden” from Frog and Toad Together passage aloud to the students. Then have them engage with the text by working in partners to read sections of the text, sketch what is memorable, and share with their partners. Distribute the Frog and Toad Together Sketch Sheet for this exercise. If you have not used this strategy in the past, model for students how to sketch memorable points quickly from a text passage. Invite a few partners to share their sketches with the class.

Optional: Using chart paper, help students build a story map that includes components such as title, author, character, setting, problem, events, and solution.

2.    Model Responding to Text-Dependent Questions

(Approximately 15 minutes)

Model the process for how to respond to text-dependent questions using textual evidence. To do so, show the sheet Visual Prompts for Literature Discussion on a document camera, reproduced on chart paper, in a handout, or on an interactive board. Then lead a classroom discussion using some of the following questions. (Provide language frames if necessary.)

  • What advice does Frog give so that Toad’s garden will grow?
  • How does Toad feel when his garden doesn’t grow? How do you know?
  • What does Toad do to care for his garden? What does that tell you about Toad?
  • When do the seeds start to grow? Why do they grow?
  • Explain what Toad means by “hard work” when he says, “But you were right Frog. It was very hard work .”

DAY 2

1.    Rereading

(Approximately 10 minutes)

Instruct students to reread the Frog and Toad Together passage independently. Review the symbolic summaries from the first day. Review the answers to the questions from the modeling exercise around text-dependent questions.

2.    Note-taking Around Text-Dependent Questions

(Approximately 20-30 minutes)

Make several class sets of the Text-Dependent Questions Graphic Organizer. E xplain to students that they will individually select questions to answer based on the text passage. Then they will complete the “My Responses” and “Evidence From the Text” sections only. Distribute and read the Frog and Toad Together Question List so they can choose their questions. Encourage students to expand their thinking beyond literal responses. Explain to students that they will select and respond to at least three questions. Therefore, distribute at least three graphic organizer sheets to each student.

3.    Speaking/Listening Exercise

(Approximately 20 minutes)

In pairs or groups of three, give students time to discuss their responses to the questions on the graphic organizer along with textual evidence. After a designated period of time, instruct students to independently complete the “My Thoughts Now” section of the graphic organizer. Tell them they will respond to a writing prompt and can use this graphic organizer along with their sketches while writing.

DAY 3

Performance Task (Writing Prompt)

(Approximately 20 minutes)

Distribute the writing prompt and lined paper. Let students know the amount of time they have to respond to it. Encourage students to use their sketches and graphic organizers that include responses to text-dependent questions to inform their writing.

Differentiation: For those students who need scaffolded support, you might distribute one of these two graphic organizers —Writing Prompt Organizer or Writing Prompt Frame— instead of asking for a written response on lined paper,

 

 

 

 


Frog and Toad Together

“The Garden”

 

Frog was in his garden. Toad came walking by. “What a fine garden you have, Frog,” he said.

“Yes,” said Frog. “It is very nice, but it was hard work.”

“I wish I had a garden,” said Toad.

“Here are some flower seeds. Plant them in the ground,” said Frog, “and soon you will have a garden.”

“How soon?” asked Toad.

“Quite soon,” said Frog.

Toad ran home. He planted the flower seeds.

“Now seeds,” said Toad, “start growing.”

Toad walked up and down a few times. The seeds did not start to grow. Toad put his head close to the ground and said loudly, “Now seeds, start growing!” Toad looked at the ground again. The seeds did not start to grow.

Toad put his head very close to the ground and shouted, “NOW SEEDS, START GROWING!”

Frog came running up the path. “What is all this noise?” he asked. “My seeds will not grow,” said Toad. “You are shouting too much,” said Frog. “These poor seeds are afraid to grow.”

“My seeds are afraid to grow?” asked Toad.

“Of course,” said Frog. “Leave them alone for a few days. Let the sun shine on them, let the rain fall on them. Soon your seeds will start to grow.”

That night, Toad looked out of his window. “Drat!” said Toad. “My seeds have not started to grow. They must be afraid of the dark.”

Toad went out to his garden with some candles. “I will read the seeds a story,” said Toad. “Then they will not be afraid.” Toad read a long story to his seeds.

All the next day Toad sang songs to his seeds. And all the next day Toad read poems to his seeds. And all the next day Toad played music for his seeds. Toad looked at the ground. The seeds still did not start to grow. “What shall I do?” cried Toad. “These must be the most frightened seeds in the whole world!”

Then Toad felt very tired and he fell asleep.

“Toad, Toad, wake up,” said Frog. “Look at your garden!”

Toad looked at his garden. Little green plants were coming up out of the ground.

“At last,” shouted Toad, “my seeds have stopped being afraid to grow!”

“And now you will have a nice garden too,” said Frog.

“Yes,” said Toad, “but you were right, Frog. It was very hard work.”

 

 

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1971, 1972 BY ARNOLD LOBEL. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers


Frog and Toad Together Sketch Sheet

 

 

Text

Read one section of the text at a time.

Quick Sketch

What do you find memorable about this part of the story? Sketch it!

1

Frog was in his garden. Toad came walking by. “What a fine garden you have, Frog,” he said.

“Yes,” said Frog. “It is very nice, but it was hard work.”

“I wish I had a garden,” said Toad.

“Here are some flower seeds. Plant them in the ground,” said Frog, “and soon you will have a garden.”

“How soon?” asked Toad.

“Quite soon,” said Frog.

Toad ran home. He planted the flower seeds.

“Now seeds,” said Toad, “start growing.”

 


Frog and Toad Together Sketch Sheet

 

Text

Read one section of the text at a time.

Quick Sketch

What do you find memorable about this part of the story? Sketch it!

2

Toad walked up and down a few times. The seeds did not start to grow. Toad put his head close to the ground and said loudly, “Now seeds, start growing!” Toad looked at the ground again. The seeds did not start to grow.

Toad put his head very close to the ground and shouted, “NOW SEEDS, START GROWING!”

Frog came running up the path. “What is all this noise?” he asked. “My seeds will not grow,” said Toad. “You are shouting too much,” said Frog. “These poor seeds are afraid to grow.”

“My seeds are afraid to grow?” asked Toad.

“Of course,” said Frog. “Leave them alone for a few days. Let the sun shine on them, let the rain fall on them. Soon your seeds will start to grow.”

 


 

Text

Read one section of the text at a time.

Quick Sketch

What do you find memorable about this part of the story? Sketch it!

3

That night, Toad looked out of his window. “Drat!” said Toad. “My seeds have not started to grow. They must be afraid of the dark.”

Toad went out to his garden with some candles. “I will read the seeds a story,” said Toad. “Then they will not be afraid.” Toad read a long story to his seeds.

All the next day Toad sang songs to his seeds. And all the next day Toad read poems to his seeds. And all the next day Toad played music for his seeds. Toad looked at the ground. The seeds still did not start to grow. “What shall I do?” cried Toad. “These must be the most frightened seeds in the whole world!”

 


 

Text

Read one section of the text at a time.

Quick Sketch

What do you find memorable about this part of the story? Sketch it!

4

Then Toad felt very tired and he fell asleep.

“Toad, Toad, wake up,” said Frog. “Look at your garden!”

Toad looked at his garden. Little green plants were coming up out of the ground.

“At last,” shouted Toad, “my seeds have stopped being afraid to grow!”

“And now you will have a nice garden too,” said Frog.

“Yes,” said Toad, “but you were right, Frog. It was very hard work.”

 

 

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1981 BY CLYDE ROBERT BULLA. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.


Visual Prompts for Literature Discussion

 

QUESTION

 

MY THOUGHTS

 

EVIDENCE

 

MY THOUGHTS AFTER DISCUSSION

 

 


Text-Dependent Questions Graphic Organizer

Question

 

 

My Thoughts

Evidence From the Text

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

My Thoughts After Discussion

 

 

 

 

 


 

Frog and Toad Together Passage

Question List

 

Directions: Choose some of these questions to respond to on your graphic organizer.

 

  • What advice does Frog give so that Toad’s garden will grow?
  • How does Toad feel when his garden doesn’t grow? How do you know?
  • What does Toad do to care for his garden? What does that tell you about Toad?
  • When do the seeds start to grow? Why do they grow?
  • Explain what Toad means by “hard work” when he says, “But you were right Frog. It was very hard work .”

 


Frog and Toad Together

Writing Task

 

Directions:

Please respond to the prompt below in writing. You may use your sketches and graphic organizers to help you. Write on the lined paper your teacher gives you.

 

Writing Prompt:

Is Frog a good friend to Toad? Why or why not? Cite evidence from the text to answer these questions.

 

Be Sure To:

  • Introduce the name of the book.
  • State your opinion clearly.
  • Give one or more reasons to support your opinion.
  • Write an ending sentence.
  • Use capital letters where you should.
  • Spell words correctly.
  • Use correct punctuation.

 

 


Writing Prompt Organizer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Writing Prompt Frame

 

 

In the story, ____________________ by _________________________,

 

_____________________ shows he is ___________________________.

           (character)

 

I think ____________________ is ______________________ for many

 

reasons. These include _______________________________________

 

_________________________________________________________

 

_________________________________________________________.

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